Oleh: evinovi | Oktober 14, 2009

Understanding Writing

Coherence

As we know that a paragraph must have a topic and a controlling idea, and a number of supporting sentences. We have to remember that a paragraph should be unified. Another element that a paragraph must possess is coherence. In other words, a paragraph must be coherent; that is, it must contain sentences that are logically arranged.

Logical arrangement refers to the order of sentences and ideas. The order of our sentences in our paragraph depends on our purpose. For example, if our purpose is to describe ourselves, we can start from name, age, address, educational background, etc. In the same way we can arrange our sentences in __ Under most important to less important, or from less important to most important (descending order, and ascending order). However, when our supporting sentences must be arranged in step-but step sequence which tells how something is made or done, there is no other way but that order.

The following sentences are jumbled and not written in good order hence the paragraph lack coherence. Rearrange the sentences for coherence.

1.

a)   His sister added Wage Rudolf to his name, so it became Wage   Rudolf

Supratman.

b)    When he was seven years old his father sent him to Budi Utomo

elementary school.

c)     Two years later he joined his sister in Ujung Pandang.

d)     She did this to enable her to send his brother to the Dutch

elementary school.

e)    Supratman was born on March, 1903.

f)     In 1912, his mother died.

1.a)   This is its atmosphere.

b)      Earth’s atmosphere is made up of about 20 kinds gases.

c)       The earth is surrounded by a thick blanket of air.

d)      It also contains water vapor and dust particles.

e)       The two main ones are oxygen and nitrogen.

  1. a)  One is familiar “ Tombstone” that lists where you went to                 school   and   where you’ve worked in chronological order.

b)  But  prospective   employees  throw  away   most  of  those

unrequested “Tombstone” lists.  Preferring to  interview  the  quick

rather than the dead.

c)       The main purpose of a resume is to convince an employer to grant

you an interview.

d)      It’s handy to have a “Tombstone” for certain occasions

e)       There are two kinds.

f)       The other is what I call the “functional” resume descriptive, fun to

read, unique to you and much more likely to land you an interview.

  1. a)  Some form of written communication has been used throughout the world.

b)  Later on people began to write on a piece of leather which was

rolled into scrolls.

c)  In the earliest time, people carved or printed messages on the

rocks.

d)  With the invention of printing press in the middle of fifteenth

century, the modern printing industry was born.

e)   In the middle ages, heavy paper called parchment was used for

writing, books, were laboriously copied by hand.

5.    a)  Swimming, to be sure, is my favorite outdoor sport of practical

reasons.

b)  Besides, a person often has the opportunity to meet new and

interesting friends on the beach or at  the swimming pool.

c)  It is generally agreed that swimming is one of the best forms of

exercise in which, a person can participate, because most of the

muscles of the body are brought into play rather than just a few as

in other sport.

d)  But there are also lees personal reasons why I prefer to swim than,

say, to play basketball.

e)  The initial cost in equipment and , usually, the admission fee are

much less than in basketball –not mention the availability of

facilities.

6.     a)  Although riding a bike economical, it can be hazardous.

b)  For example, when I worked in downtown, I used to ride my bike to

work everyday through rush-hour traffic.

c)  This meant that the drivers were either not yet quite awake or angry

after a hard day’s work.

d)  Once I was nearly hit by a driver making a right- hand turn.

e)  After that accident, I parked my bike at home and took the bus to

work.

f)   Some of these angry drivers even tried to crowd me of the road.

g)   Other came closer behind me and laid on their horns.

7.     a)  Before jacking up the car to change the flat tire, you need to do

several things.

b)   Make sure that the car in on the level ground.

c)   You do not want the car to start rolling when it is up in the air.

d)  Take the jack, the lug, the wrench, and the spare tire of the trunk.

e)   You should also make sure that the emergency brake is on.

f)   Now loosen the wheel nut on the flat tire.

g) You do not want to jerk or push on the car once it is jacked up.

Each sentence in a paragraph should relate to the main idea being discussed. If a sentence does not relate or develop the main idea, this sentence is irrelevant and must be omitted. A paragraph that has sentences which do not relate to the main idea lacks unity, or the paragraph is not unified. If, for example, we intend to explain two important reasons for not coming late to school, discuss only these two reasons: do not discuss anything else.

Exercise

Cross out any sentence that is irrelevant to the topic being discussed.

Text 1

Zoos are popular with all children. They are able to see examples of wildlife from all continents. In wildlife preserves in Africa, the animals wander about freely without fear of being captured. Perhaps the favorite spot in a zoo is the elephant cage. There the elephant entertain the children by sprying themselves with their trunks and doing various tricks. The children are especially delighted when an elephant takes peanuts from them with his trunk.

Text 2

Tomatoes are full of nutrients and are an especially good source of antioxidant vitamins. In fact, one serving of tomato will give you 40 % of your recommendation daily allowance of vitamin C. All doctors will suggest that we take as many vitamins as possible in one day to stay strong. Diets rich in fruit and vegetables are associated with lower risks of many diseases and a diet which includes high intake of tomatoes has been shown to protect against prostate cancer. We often see how dangerous the disease is so that many people have died because of it. Tomatoes are by far the richest source of lycopene, a powerful antioxidant , which gives tomato its red color. Color can help us add appetite in consuming food. No other food contains this high level of antioxidant. Lycopene is highest in processed tomato foods, such as tomato puree, because they are concentrated.

Text 3

There are two reason why I have decided to attend ITB after high school.  First, ITB is the best universities in Indonesia. It has the most complete facilities among the universities ever available in this country. The lecturers are well qualified. Applying to a university is a terribly complicated process. Some of my friends chose universities for very bad reasons. Iwa  has never been to university. I have met his father, and he still has an incredibly sharp mind for a man of his age. Susanti chose a university because the food in the region was said to be quite good. Susanti is not really too clever, I suppose, so I should not criticize her. Actually, I think, I have met her father who made the choice for her. Second, its graduates seem to find it easy to get a job. As we know that most of us want to get a steady job as soon as we graduate. Besides being proud to be students there, I will hold a great hope of a better future.

Text 4

Much has been written about sharing of house tasks between men and women. Tasks once thought to belong to only one sex, for example, fixing cars by men and cooking by women, are not shared-at least by some. But there is a gap between what people say should happen and what they actually do. Although most people think task should be shared, may report that this happens. However, some couples are better at sharing the money they earn. Their salaries are combined and this is used to pay for all house hold expenses, such as the bills for food, light, and housing. The children always demand too much. If the parents do not fulfill their children’s wish, they are afraid the children will feel  being neglected. This often becomes one of the causes for divorce. Dispute about child’s matter is avoidable in family. Men and women will take the decision to divorce if they think they cannot maintain a wealthy family. They will think is a good decision.

Text 5

Noise is a sound that is unwanted, disagreeable, and disturbing. The world and its skies steadily grow noisier. Doctors and specialists in hearing disorders use the term “noise pollution” to describe the danger of prolonged unpleasant sound. For centuries, noise has been a nuisance. Scientists and physicians have gathered evidence showing the effects of excessive noise. Besides a temporary or permanent loss in hearing sharpness, constant exposure to loud noise can cause nervousness and fatigue. Doctors think it may also be responsible for some illnesses. If we drive our own car, the smoke emitted from the exhaust pipe will pollute the air. Also careless littering will pollute the water badly. But apart from its effect on health and hearing, noise will also make it difficult to hear the sounds that people want to hear, hinder concentration, and interfere with sleep. We must do something to clean our environment from any bad condition such as crime and garbage.


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